Protective Factors

Protective factors are conditions in families and communities that, when present, increase the health and well-being of children and families. These attributes serve as buffers, helping parents find resources, support, or coping strategies that allow them to parent effectively, even under stress. Research has shown that the protective factors are linked to a lower incidence of child abuse and neglect.

Parental Resilience

Parents who can cope with the stresses of everyday life, as well an occasional crisis, have resilience; they have the flexibility and inner strength necessary to bounce back when things are not going well. Multiple life stressors, such as a family history of abuse or neglect, health problems, marital conflict, or domestic or community violence—and financial stressors such as unemployment, poverty, and homelessness—may reduce a parent's capacity to cope effectively with the typical day-to-day stresses of raising children.

Social and Emotional Competence of Children 

Children's early experiences of being nurtured and developing a positive relationship with caring adult affects all aspects of behavior and development. Research shows that babies who receive affection and nurturing from their parents have the best chance of healthy development. A child's relationship with a consistent, caring adult in the early years is associated later in life with better academic grades, healthier behaviors, more positive peer interactions, and an increased ability to cope with stress.

Parental Knowledge of Child Development and Parenting Skills

There is extensive research linking healthy child development to effective parenting. Children thrive when parents provide not only affection, but also respectful communication and listening, consistent rules and expectations, and safe opportunities that promote independence. Successful parenting fosters psychological adjustment, helps children succeed in school, encourages curiosity about the world, and motivates children to achieve.

Concrete Support for Parents

Many factors affect a family's ability to care for their children. Families who can meet their own basic needs for food, clothing, housing, and transportation—and who know how to access essential services such as childcare, health care, and mental health services to address family-specific needs—are better able to ensure the safety and well-being of their children.

Partnering with parents to identify and access resources in the community may help prevent the stress that sometimes precipitates child maltreatment. Providing concrete supports may also help prevent the unintended neglect that sometimes occurs when parents are unable to provide for their children.

Social Connections

Parents with a social network of emotionally supportive friends, family, and neighbors often find that it is easier to care for their children and themselves. Most parents need people they can call on once in a while when they need a sympathetic listener, advice, or concrete support. Research has shown that parents who are isolated, with few social connections, are at higher risk for child abuse and neglect.

For More Information

  • The Center for the Study of Social Policy (CSSP) uses data and community experience to improve the lives of children and families. CSSP’s Strengthening Families Protective Factors Framework is a research-informed approach to increase family strengths, enhance child development, and reduce the likelihood of child abuse and neglect. It is based on engaging families, programs, and communities in building the five protective factors.
  • The Child Welfare Information Gateway links professionals and the public to information that promotes the safety, permanency, and well-being of children, youth, and families. A service of the Children’s Bureau, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, they offer electronic publications, websites, databases, and online learning tools for improving child welfare. Click here for tools and information about Protective Factors, including resources that can be shared with families.
  • Download our Protective Factors infographic below and print or share on social media!

ProtectiveFactors

Prevent Child Abuse North Carolina

A chapter of Prevent Child Abuse America

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